- Normal flora of the intestinal
tract in humans and animals.
- Usually the patient's own fecal
flora; some transmission is patient-to-patient.
- Responsible for about 10% of all
nosocomial infections (def).
- Most common infections are urinary
tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia (def).
- Other infections include endocarditis
as a complication of bacteremia and wound infections; infections within the
peritoneal cavity including intra-abdominal abcesses (usually polymicrobial
especially following penetrating trauma such as gunshot wounds, knife
wounds, and surgical wounds; kidney infections as a complication of UTIs,
prostate infections, and infections of damaged or compromised skin, such as
diabetic or decubitus ulcers, burns, and surgical wounds (often polymicrobial).
- The enterococci have become the
second most common bacterium isolated from nosocomial urinary and wound infections,
and the third most common cause of nosocomial bacteremia. Each year in the
U.S., in fact, enterococci account for approximately 110,000 urinary tract
infections, 40,000 wound infections, 25,000 cases of nosocomial bacteremia,
and 1100 cases of endocarditis.
- Predisposing factors include:
- urinary (def)
- long-term hospitalization
while receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Based on Enterococcal Infections, by Curtis J Donskey, MD, Chairman of Infection Control, Instructor, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University and Robert A Salata, MD, Chief and Clinical Program Director of Division of Infectious Diseases, Vice Chair for International Affairs, Professor, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine