Fig. 5: The Harmful Effects of Peptidoglycan Fragments
and Lipoteichoic Acid Released During Gram-Positive Infections

The lysis of Gram-positive bacteria causes them to release peptidoglycan fragments, teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids, and mannose-rich glycans from their cell wall. These cell wall components, in turn, bind to parrern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are specific for these cell wall components and are found on the surface of body defense cells called macrophages.This triggers the macrophages to release various defense regulatory chemicals called cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and PAF. The cytokines then bind to cytokine receptors on target cells stimulating the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes as well as activating both the complement pathways and the coagulation pathway. Excessive production of clotting factors may lead to ARDS and DIC while an overproduction of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and complement proteins can damage the vascular endothelium resulting in shock and MSOF.

(LPS, lipopolysaccharide; IL-1, interleukin-1; IL-6, interleukin-6; IL-8, interleukin-8, TNF-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; PAF, platelet-activating factor; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; MSOF, multiplesystem organ failure.)


Illustration of The Harmful Effects of Peptidoglycan Fragments and Lipoteichoic Acid Released During Gram-Positive Infections.jpg by Gary E. Kaiser, Ph.D.
Professor of Microbiology, The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/index.html.

Creative Commons License

Last updated: August, 2018
Please send comments and inquiries to Dr. Gary Kaiser