- Facultative anaerobes (def).
- There are 4 species of Shigella:
S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei.
- The intestinal tract of infected
- Humans are the only reservoir
for Shigella. Transmitted by the fecal-oral route.
- Over 23,600 cases of shigellosis
were reported in the U.S. in 1998 but most cases are not reported. An estimated
450,000 are thought to occur each year in the U.S.
- The most common cause of shigellosis
in developed countries is S. flexneri.
- 70% of all Shigella infections
occur in children under the age of 15.
- Symptoms of shigellosis include
diarrhea, bloody stool, abdominal cramps, and fever. The incubation period
is 1-3 days.
- Initial profuse watery diarrhea
typically appears first as a result of enterotoxin. Within 1-2 days this progresses
to Abdominal cramps and tenesmus (def),
with or without bloody stool. Classic shigellosis presents itself as lower
abdominal cramps and stool abundant with blood and pus develops as the Shigella
invade the mucosa of the colon.
Infection, by Walid Abuhammour, MD, FAAP, Associate Professor of Pediatrics,
Michigan State University; Director of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Department
of Pediatrics, Hurley Medical Center and
Ilyas Burny, MD, Staff Physician, Department of Pediatrics, Hurley Medical Center.