Transport of Substances Across a Membrane by Antiporters

Antiporters are transport proteins that simultaneously transport two substances across the membrane in opposite directions; one against the concentration gradient and one with the concentration gradient. Energy for transport of the substance moving against it's concentration gradient is provided by the potential energy stored in the electrochemical gradient of sodium ions (Na+) or protons (H+). Cardiac muscle cells, for example, use an antiporter to co-transfer sodium ions and calcium ions.

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