Fig. 1: Lysogenic Life Cycle of a Temperate Bacteriophage

  1. Adsorption: phage adsorbs to receptors on the bacterial cell wall.
  2. Penetration: phage injects its genome into the bacterium's cytoplasm.
  3. Early replication: phage genome replicates and phage components begin to be produced.
  4. Late replication: production of phage components progresses.
  5. Maturation: phage components assemble.
  6. Release: phage-coded lysozyme breaks down peptidoglycan causing lysis of the host bacterium.


  7. Phage inserts its genome into the bacterial nucleoid to become a prophage.
  8. As the bacterium replicates, the prophage replicates as a part of the nucleoid.
  9. Rare spontaneous induction: phage replicates via the lytic life cycle.

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