Fig. 2: CTL-Induced Apoptosis of a Cross-Reacting Normal Cell
during Type IV Hypersensitivity, step 2

Binding of the CTL to a cross-reacting normal cell triggers the CTL to release pore-forming proteins called perforins, proteolytic enzymes called granzymes, and chemokines. Granzymes pass through the perforin pores and activate the enzymes that lead to apoptosis of the infected cell by means of destruction of its structural cytoskeleton proteins and by chromosomal degradation. As a result, the cell breaks into fragments that are subsequently removed by phagocytes.

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