Fig. 8: Activation of a B-lymphocyte by way of LPS Binding to Toll-like Receptors

TI-1 antigens include lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the outer membrane of the gram-negative cell wall and bacterial nucleic acid. These antigens activate B-lymphocytes by binding to their specific toll-like receptors rather than to B-cell receptors. Binding of LPS to its toll-like receptor activates chemical signals that lead to transcription of antibody and cytokine genes.

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